Class 10

Agriculture Class 10 Notes – Social Science

Agriculture Class 10 Notes Concept

(1) Agriculture means land cultivation. It also includes animal husbandry and fishing.

(2) At present in different parts of India, the types of farming being carried out are primitive subsistence farming, intensive subsistence farming and commercial farming.

(3) Primitive subsistence farming is characterised by small and scattered landholdings and use of primitive tools. The farmers do not use fertilizers and high-yielding varieties of seeds.

(4) Intensive subsistence farming is carried out in the areas with high population pressure on land. Irrigation, fertilizers and pesticides are used to get maximum output from limited land. Various machines are introduced.

(5) Commercial farming is characterised by use of higher doses of modern inputs in order to obtain higher productivity.

(6) Plantation farming, a form of commercial farming, involves growing of a single crop on a large area.

(7) In India, there are three crop seasons —  Kharif, Rabi, Zaid.

  • Kharif — It starts with the onset of the mon oon and continues till the beginning of winter (June-July to September-October). The kharif crops include rice, maize, millet, cotton, jute, groundnut, moong, urad, e c.
  • Rabi — It starts with the beginning of winter and continues till the beginning of summer (October-December to Ap il-June). The rabi crops include wheat, barley, gram and oilseeds.
  • Zaid — This is a short crop season in between the rabi and the kharif season. Crops like watermelons, muskmelons, cucumber, some vegetables and fodder crops are the major crops.

(8) India produces a wide variety of crops, namely cereals, pulses and oilseeds, fibre crops, beverage crops, cash crops.

  • Cereals — It covers about three-fourth of the total cropped area of the country. The principal cereals grown in India are — rice, wheat, millets, maize, pulses.
  • Rice — It requires a temperature between 20° to 27°C and a rainfall above 100 cm.
  • Wheat — It requires a temperature between 16° to 22°C and a rainfall between 50-75 cm.
  • Millets — Jowar, Bajra, Ragi.
  • Fibre crops — Cotton and jute are the two important fibre crops grown in India.
  • Beverage crops — Tea and coffee are important beverage crops.
  • Cash crops — The major cash crops are sugarcane, rubber, tobacco, spices and fruits and vegetables.

(9) Persian wheel has been replaced by water pump, the plough by tiller and harrow drawn by tractor, the bullock cart by truck.

(10) Flooding of fields is being replaced by drip irrigation. Chemical Fertilizers took the place of farm manure.

(11) Chemical Fertilizers are being replaced by bio-Fertilizers.

(12) The technological advancements gave birth to Green Revolution, White Revolution or Operation Flood.

(13) The Government abolished the Zamindari system.

(14) Radio and television inform the farmers about the new improved techniques of farming.

(15) Rural banks, cooperative societies and Kisan Credit Card ensure easy availability of funds to farmers.

(16) Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy.

(17) Considering the importance of agriculture the Government of India took steps to modernize agriculture.

(18) Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) was established.

(19) Indian farmers are facing a big challenge from international competition but our government is going ahead with reduction in the public investment in agriculture sector, particularly in irrigation power, rural roads, market and mechanization.

(20) The food grain production has increased from 51 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 209.8 million tonnes in 1999-2000.

(21) A food stock of 44.7 million tonnes had been accumulated in 2001.

(22) In spite of the surplus food grains, many Indians do not have enough money to feed themselves.

(23) There has been a gradual shift from cultivation of food crops to cultivation of fruits, vegetables, oil seeds and crops which also act as industrial raw material.

(24) In 2000-01, India produced only 196.8 million tonnes of food grain.

(25) The use of more and more land f r construction of factories, warehouses and shelters has reduced the land under cultivation and new fertile land for farming is no longer available.

(26) Fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides which once showed a dramatic result are now being held responsible for degr ding soils.

(27) Periodic scarcity of water has led to reduction in area under irrigation. Inefficient water management has led to water logging and salinity.

(28) Biotechnology can be used to modify different crops genetically to increase the yield per hectare.

(29) Biotechnology is environmentally safe and sustainable.

(30) Globalisation is based on the philosophy of free and open international trade.

(31) Globalisation ensures that good quality goods at competitive prices alone will survive in the market.

(32) India has an abundance of human labour. Every effort will have to be made to raise their efficiency and equip them with new and advanced tools, implements and machines to enable them to compete with their counterparts in other parts of the world.

(33) India will have to develop techniques which the developed countries have been using.

(34) An unrestricted united national market for farm products within the country must be set up. This will require the development of roads, electricity, irrigation and credit facilities to farmers and traders.

Agriculture Class 10 Notes – NCERT Book Questions

Q.1. The land under cultivation is getting reduced day-by-day. Can you imagine its consequences?

Ans. Agriculture has been the backbone of the Indian economy and provides employment and livelihood to about two-thirds of its population.

Taking into consideration the importance of agriculture, the reduction of land under cultivation has serious consequences. Diversion of land for non-agricultural use like housing, industries, etc., has resulted in reduction of net sown area and a declining trend in productivity. As such food grain as well as commerical crop production is declining. This will lead to :

  • Food shortage for the rising population.
  • Rise in price unaffordable for poor people.
  • Unemployment and loss of livelihood for farmers
  • Shortage of supply of raw material for agro-industries.
  • Adverse affect on export trade as agricultural products comprise a major section of international trade.
  • Strain on foreign exchange reserves as more agricultural goods will have to be imported.

Q.2. Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth. Name the areas of its production.


Explain the favourable temperature, rainfall and soil conditions required for the growth of tea. Name the leading tea-producing states.

Ans. Tea is an important beverage crop of India. India is the leading producer as well as exporter of tea in the world. Favourable geographical conditions for growth of tea are as follows :

  • Climate : The tea plant grows well in tropical and subtropical climate. Tea bushes require warm (temperature between 20°C to 30°C), moist (annual rainfall of 150 – 250 cm) and frost-free climate throughout the year. Frequent showers evenly distributed throughout the year ensure continuous supply of tender leaves.
  • Soil : Deep fertile, well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter are ideal for its Hence, rolling topography is favourable for its cultivation.

Tea is grown in big plantations originally introduced by the British. The major tea-producing areas are in Assam and hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri district in West Bengal. Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala in the south, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya and Tripura are other tea-producing states.

Q.3. What was the impact of partition on the jute industry in Indi ? What has led to decline in Jute production in recent times?


How did the partition of the country in 1947 affect the jute industry ? What factors have resulted in decline of jute production in recent years?

Ans. The partition of the country in 1947 caused serious problems for the jute industry. The industrial units for jute production remained in India while the raw jute producing areas went to Bangladesh. Hence, initially there was a serious shortage of raw material for the jute industry, and it suffered considerably. G adually, the floodplains of Ganga, especially the Hooghly basin, Mahanadi and Brahmaput a basin were brought under jute cultivation to provide raw material for jute textile industry.

In recent years high cost of jute as compared to synthetic fibres has led to decline in jute production. Due to this, jute is l sing market to synthetic fibres and packing materials, particularly the nylon. In face of competition, from substitutes and from other countries like Bangladesh and Thailand, jute is losing demand and hence, its production is declining.

Q.4. Name one staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced. Describe the geographical conditions required for its growth.


Which is the staple crop for majority of the people in India? What are the geographical conditions required for its growth. Name the major areas of its production.


Describe the temperature, rainfall and soil conditions for the growth of rice. Name the major areas of rice production.

Ans.      Rice is the staple food crop of a majority of the people in India. It is their main cereal and is a part of their everyday diet. India is the second largest producer of rice after China. It is grown on the plains of north and northeastern India, coastal areas and deltaic regions. West Bengal, Assam, Odissa, Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh, parts of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu and some parts of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and eastern Madhya Pradesh are the major areas of rice production. In Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan, rice is grown as commercial crop with the help of irrigation.

The geographical conditions required for growth of rice are as follows :

(i) It is a kharif crop and requires hot and humid climate for cultivation. Temperature above 25°C and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm are favourable for growth of rice.

(ii) Rich alluvial soils of the floodplains and deltaic areas which are renewed every years are ideal for rice cultivation.

(iii) Rice requires abundant rainfall or good water supply through irrigation and flooded fields during the earlier part of its growing season in June-July.

(iv) Plenty of cheap labour as most of the farming involves manual labour.

Q.5. What  is  the  importance  of  using  high  yielding  variety  of  seeds,  machines  and  other technological advancements in increasing the agricultural production? Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.

Ans. High Yielding Variety of seeds and machines form the basis of modernisation of agriculture. The Government of India has opened agricultural universities, agricultural research institutes, agricultural farms and demonstration farms. There, the seeds are improved and demonstration is given to the farmers for use of Fertilizers and improved seeds. They are trained to adopt new farm machineries to increase agricultural production.

Farmers get these inputs on subsidised rates and on loan basis. This helps them to adopt these modern inputs to increase agricultural productivity.

Various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in interest of the farmers are :

  • Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire, and diseases.
  • Establishment of Grameen Banks, cooperative societies and b ks for providing loan facilities to farmers at lower interest rates.
  • Kisan Credit Card, Personal Accident Insurance Scheme.
  • Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers on television and radio.

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